Enclosed Coastal Seas in the World.pdf
No Sea area Dimensions Main Environmental
Protection Measures
Related Organizations and NGOs Current Status and New Directions
1 Chesapeake Bay Surface Area 11,603km2
Volume 68.1km3
Average Depth 6.4m
  • 29 % were met the water quality standards (DO, transparency, Chl-a, underwater grasses)
  • Overabundance of N & P from air, land and water
  • Sedimentation into sea floor
  • Toxic chemicals (pesticides, pharmaceuticals, PCBs)
  • EO 13508 for Chesapeake Bay Protection and Restoration
  • Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)
  • Chesapeake Bay Program
  • Chesapeake Bay Foundation
  • Maryland Department of National Resources
  • Virginia Department of Environmental Quality
  • NOAA Chesapeake Bay Office
  • USGS Chesapeake Bay Features
2 San Francisco Bay Surface Area 1,040km2
Volume 7km3
Average Depth 6m
  • Water quality of Bay has improved
  • Bottom sediment (70% were toxic to aquatic organisms)
  • PCBs, methyl mercury and dioxin are highly detected in fish
  • Decrease and regeneration of Habitats
  • Decline of biological resources
  • San Francisco Estuary Project(SFEP)
  • San Francisco Estuary Institute
3 Gulf of Mexico Surface Area 1,592,800km2
Volume 2,366,901km3
Average Depth 1,486m
  • Loss of coastal wetland
  • Fish contaminants
  • Sediment quality
  • Oil spills
  • Federal Fishery Management Council (stop overfishing, reduce bycatch, protect deep water coral reefs)
  • US EPA Gulf of Mexico Program
  • Centro de Ecologia, Pesquerias y Oceanografia del Golfo Mexico (EPOMEX)
  • Centro de Investigaciones Marinas (CIM)
4 Mediterranean Sea Surface Area 2,536,000km2
Volume 3,750,000km3
Average Depth -
  • Eutrophication, heavy metals pollution, organic pollution, microbial pollution (coastal areas)
  • POPs
  • Marine litter
  • Marine noise
  • Barcelona Convention (21 countries surrounding Mediterranean Sea)
  • Mediteranean Strategy or Sustainable Development (MSSD)
  • UNEP Mediterranean Action Plan
5 North Sea Surface Area 575,200km2
Volume 54,069km3
Average Depth 94m
  • Eutrophication
  • Contamination by trace organic compounds
  • Marine litter
  • Impacts of climate change
  • Damage to shallow sediment habitats
  • Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-EastAtlantic (OSPAR Convention)
  • Bonn Agreement
  • The North Sea Commission
  • European Environment Agency (EEA)
  • International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES)
  • Risk assessment for marine pollution in the Greater North Sea and its wider approaches
6 Baltic Sea Surface Area 422,200km2
Volume 23,221km3
Average Depth 55m
  • Eutrophication
  • Pollution by hazardous substances
  • Oil pollution
  • Threat to biodiversity
  • Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area (Helsinki Convention)
  • Helsinki Commission (HELCOM)
  • International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES)
  • Coalition Clean Baltic (CCB)
  • Baltic Sea Research Institute Warnemunde
7 Persian Gulf Surface Area 233,000km2
Volume 8,155km3
Average Depth 35m
  • Oil pollution
  • Land-based pollution
  • Destruction of habitats
  • Kuwait Convention and Action Plan
  • Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment (ROPME)
  • Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment (ROPME9)
  • the Marine Emergency Mutual Aid Centre (MEMAC)
  • UN Division for Ocean Affairs
  • Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD)
  • Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA)
  • Global Programme of Action (GPA)
  • Regional Office for West Asia (ROWA)
  • United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
  • United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
  • International Maritime Organization (IMO)
  • etc.
8 Gulf of Thailand Surface Area 320,000km2
Volume 14,400km3
Average Depth 45m
  • Water quality of Main river
    Chao Praya; deteriorated
    Tha Chin; deteriorated
    Mae Klong; fair
    Bangpakong; fair
  • Pollution in the Gulf (mercury)
  • Sediment quality (heavy metals)
  • Degradation and decline of habitats
  • Reduction of coral reefs
  • Project "Reversing Environmental Degradation Trends in the South China Sea and Gulf of Thailand"
  • Partnership in Environmental Management for the seas of East Asia (PEMSEA)
  • CORE sea
  • Mangroves for the Future
  • Bird Conservation Society of Thailand (BCST)
9 Bohai Sea Surface Area 77,284km2
Volume 2,009km3
Average Depth 26m
  • Nearshore areas (pollution of organic matters, active phosphate, petroleum hydrocarbon, inorganic nitrogen and heavy metals)
  • Red tides
  • Oil spills
  • Coastal erosion
  • Blue Sea Action Plan for the Bohai Sea
10 Seto Inland Sea Surface Area 23,203km2
Volume 881.5km3
Average Depth 38m
  • Water quality (COD, TP and TN pollution from land has been greatly reduced)
  • Red tides (200-300 in 1975, 100 in recent year)
  • Reduction of neritic region
  • Water Pollution Control Law (Control of Total Maximum Daily Load, Environmental Standards of Nitrogen and Phosphorus)
  • Seto Inland Sea Environmental Protection Temporary Measure Law
  • Seto Inland Sea Environmental Conservation Governor, Mayor Meeting
  • Health Organizations Federation
  • the Association for the Environmental Conservation of Seto inland Sea
11 Black Sea Surface Area 508,000km2
Volume 629,920km3
Average Depth 1,240m
  • Invasive species
  • Land reclamation
  • Change wettland to agricultural polder
  • Environmental Protection Measure by the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC)
  • Natura 2000 programme
  • Black Sea NGO Network
  • Agreement for the Conservation of the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Contiguous Atlantic Area (ACCOBAMS)
  • Mediterranean Coastal Foundation (MEDCOAST)
12 Puget Sound Surface Area 2,600km2
Volume 169km3
Average Depth -
  • Low dissolved oxygen
  • High fecal coliform bacteria contamination
  • Eutrophication
  • Chemical contamination (PCBs, DDT)
  • Sediment (arsenic, copper, mercury, lead and zinc)
  • Shoreline modification
  • Puget Sound Water Quality Management Plan
  • Puget Sound/Georgia Basin International Task Force
  • Puget Sound Partnership
  • The Association of National Estuary Programs (ANEP)
  • People for Puget Sound
13 Hudson Bay Surface Area 1,232,300km2
Volume 157,734km3
Average Depth 128m
  • Ecosystem pollution (organochlorine; DDT, PCBs radionuclides; Cs-137)
  • Climate change
  • Canadian Ocean Act
  • Nunavut Wildlife Management Board (NWMB)
  • the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC)
  • Canadian Arctic Resource Committee
14 Gulf of California Surface Area 153,000km2
Volume 183,600km3
Average Depth 1,200m
  • Fish reproduction (high salinity)
  • Pesticide input from agricultural area
  • Species in danger of economic extinction
  • Greater local control over marine resources
  • more law enforcement in the government
  • USA provides finantial assistance for the environmental protection of the Gulf
  • To develop public educational materials
  • Sea of Cortez International Preservation Foundation
15 Caribbean Sea Surface Area 2,718,200km2
Volume 7,195,075km3
Average Depth 2,647m
  • Water pollution (sewage, eutrophication)
  • Degradation of seagrass and coral reefs
  • POPs
  • Solid waste
  • Offshore oil and gas exploitation are sources of pollution
  • Habitat destruction due to coastal development
  • Cartagena Convention (Cooperation in Combating Oil Spill, Special Protected Areas and Wildlife (SPAW), Pollution from Land-based Sourcesand Activities (LBS))
  • Caribbian Action Plan
  • Caribbean Environment Programme (CEP)
  • Assessment and Management of Environmet Pollution (AMEP)
  • Caribbean Environment Programme (CEP)
  • Caribbean Regional Fund for Wastewater Management
  • Caribbean Natural Resource Institute (CANARI)
  • UNEP Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities
16 Red Sea Surface Area 438,000km2
Volume 215,058km3
Average Depth 491m
  • Pollution comes from land-based activities
  • Oil exploitation
  • Destraction of habitat
  • Over exploitation of marine resources
  • Jeddah Convention (Regional Convention for the Conservation of the Environment of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Environment)
  • A Strategic Action Plan (SAP)
  • Regional Organization for the Conservation of the Environment of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden (PERSGA)
  • Friends of the Earth Middle East (FoEME)
17 Bay of Bengal Surface Area 2,173,000km2
Volume 5,649,800km3
Average Depth 2,600m
  • Pollution in the Bay is localized (eutrophication, POPs)
  • 1,800 ton/year of pesticides enter the Bay
  • Oil pollution (offshore oil and gas exploration)
  • Seabed mining
  • Bay of Bengal Program (BOBP)
  • Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand Economic Cooperation (BIMST-EC)
  • South Asia Association for Regional Co-operation (SAARC)
  • United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific (ESCAP)
  • South Asia Co-operative Environment Programme (SACEP)
  • Indian Ocean Marine Affairs Co-opration (IOMA)
  • Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC)
  • Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA)
  • Asia@Pacific Fishery Commission (APFIC)
  • Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia -Pacific (NACA)
18 South China Sea Surface Area 2,319,000km2
Volume 3,830,988km3
Average Depth 1,652m
  • Water pollution (sewage, BOD, eutrophication)
  • Trans Boundary Issues associated with Regional Food Security
  • Threats to coral reefs
19 Yellow Sea Surface Area 466,200km2
Volume 18,648km3
Average Depth 40m
  • Water Quality (general good)
  • Sediment Quality (High organic concentration)
  • Over exploitation of fishery resources
  • Harmuful Algal Blooms (HAB)
  • Strict controls on fishing efforts
  • Transboundary cooperation (NOWPAP, TRADP, APEC, GEF/UNDP/IMO)
  • Northwest Pacific Action Plan (NOWPAP)
  • UNDP/GEF Yellow Sea LME Project
  • Korean Institute of Ocean Science & Technology (KIOST)
  • World Wildlife Fund (WWF) China
20 East China Sea Surface Area 735,800km2
Volume 128,765km3
Average Depth 175m
  • Urbanization and industrialization accerated environmental pollution and water quality deterioration
  • Sediment quality (not serious polluted)
  • Environmental Protection Law of the People's Republic of China
21 Sea of Japan Surface Area 978,000km2
Volume 1,713,456km3
Average Depth 1,752m
  • Red Tides
  • Influence of global warming
  • Marine litter
  • Radioactive pollution
  • Oil spill
  • Ongoing environmental protection measure
  • Northwest Pacific Action Plan (NOWPAP)
  • Coastal Marine litter Survey
  • Northwest Pacific Regional Environmental Cooperation (NPEC)
  • the Economic Research Institute for Northeast Asia (ERINA)
  • Japan Seaology Promotion Organization
  • Ocean Energy of Japan Sea Governments
  • The Association of North East Asia Regional Governments (NEAR)
  • Association for Northeast Asia Regional Studies